Effects of mother corm diameter and plant growth regulators on ex vitro corm propagule regeneration in saffron (Crocus sativus L.)

Mehmet Ugur Yildirim, Mortaza Hajyzadeh


Saffron (Crocus sativus L.), is an economically important spice, medicinal
and dye plant that is vegetatively propagated through corms. Saffron corms
have low multiplication efficiency under field conditions; therefore, any effort to
accelerate their multiplication will be desired. The study aimed to establish a
mutiplication system using small (1.10 to 1.75 cm) and large (1.75 to 2.40 cm)
diametered mother saffron corms after treatment with 20 mg·L-1 BAP + 300 mg·L-1 GA3 or 20 mg·L-1 BAP for 4, 6, 8, 10 h. The best corm induction rate was noted on treatment with 20 mg·L-1 BAP for 4 h pretreatment irrespective of the mother corm dimeter. Small and large mother corms had maximum multiplication rate of 80.00 and 86.67%, mean number of 6.17 and 5.55 cormlets induction per mother corm with 0.62 and 0.69 cm diameter. All of them induced variable number of roots per corm propagule. The experiment was completed in 90 days. The results show that, pretreatment of saffron corms with BAP + GA3 or BAP could serve as an appropriate technique for economic multiplication of saffron corms without compromising qualitative and quantitative characteristics of saffron. The results obtained in this study could be used to help in designing improved saffron corm production in future.

Palabras clave

Ex vitro, saffron, preconditioning, corm, propagation, plant growth regulators.

Texto completo:



Aasim, M., K.M. Khawar and S. Ozcan. 2008. In vitro regeneration of red squill Urginea maritima (L.) Baker. using thidiazuron. Biotechnol. Biotechnol. Eq. 22(4):925-928.

Abdullaev, F.I. 2002. Cancer chemopreventive and tumoroicidal properties of saffron (Crocus sativus L.). Exp. Biol. Med. 227:20-25.

Ahrazem, O., A. Rubio-Moraga, S.G. Nebauer, R.V. Molina and L. Gómez-Gómez. 2015. Saffron: its phytochemistry, developmental processes, and

biotechnological prospects. J. Agric. Food Chem. 63(40):8751-8764.

Alam, A. 2006. Status and prospects of mechanization in Saffron cultivation in Kashmir. Acta Hort. 650:409-415.

Aloni, R., E. Aloni, M. Langhans and C.I. Ullrich. 2006. Role of cytokinin and auxin in shaping root architecture: regulating vascular differentiation,

lateral root initiation, root apical dominance and root gravitropism.

Ann. Bot. 97(5):883-893.

Anonymous. 2016. Regional Saffron cultivation and harvesting techniques

in Spain, Greece andItaly. Available in: http://www.europeansaffron.eu/

archivos/Annex%20White% 20book. pdf. Date of consultation: October

Aung, L.H., A.A. De Hertogh and G.L. Staby. 1969. Temperature regulation of endogenous gibberellin activity and development of Tulipa gesneriana L. Plant Physiol. 44:403-406.

Azizbekova, N.S., E.L. Milyaeva and M.K. Chailakhyan. 1982. Effect of

gibberellin on functional activity of dormant saffron buds. Fiziologiya

Rastenii 29(6):1164-1169.

Bakhtavari, A.S., K.M. Khawar and N. Arslan. 2011. Ex vitro shoot

regeneration and lateral buds of freshly harvested saffron corms. Afr.

J. Agric. Res. 6(15):3583-3588.

Bayat, M., M. Rahimi and M. Ramezani. 2016. Determining the most effective traits to improve saffron (Crocus sativus L.) yield. Physiol. Mol. Biol. Plants 22(1):153-161.

Devi, K., M. Sharma, M. Singh and P.S. Ahuja. 2011. In vitro cormlet production and growth evaluation under green house conditions in saffron (Crocus sativus L.) a commercially important crop. Eng. Life Sci. 11(1):16.

Ding, B., S. Bai, Y. Wu and X. Fan. 1981. Induction of callus and regeneration of plantlets from corm of C. sativus L. Acta Bot. Sin. 23:419-420.

Domagalska, M.A. and O. Leyser. 2011. Signal integration in the control of shoot branching. Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell. Biol. 12(4):211-221.

Faiss, M., J. Zalubilova, M. Strnad and T. Schmulling. 1997. Conditional

transgenic expression of the ipt gene indicates a function for cytokinins in

paracrine signaling in whole tobacco plants. Plant J. 12:401-415.

Fernández, A. 2006. Genetic resources of saffron and allies (Crocus

spp.). Proceedings of the Second International Symposium on Saffron

Biology and Technology. Acta Hort. 650:167-188.

Gan, Y., C. Liu, H. Yu and O. Broun. 2007. Integration of cytokinins and

gibberellins signalling by Arabidopsis transcription factors GIS, ZFP8 and

GIS2 in the regulation of epidermal cell fate. Devel. 134:2073-2081.

Goliaris, A.H. 2006. Saffron cultivation ın Greece. pp. 73-86. Saffron: Crocus sativus L. medicinal and aromatic plants: industrial profiles. Negbi, M. (Ed.). Taylor & Francis e-Library. Harwood academic publishers

Australia, Canada, China, France, Germany, India, Japan, Luxembourg,

Malaysia, The Netherlands, Russia, Singapore and Switzerland. Vol 8.

Golmohammadi, F. 2014. Saffron and its farming, economic importance,

export, medicinal characteristics and various uses in south khorasan

province- east of Iran farhood. IJFAS. 31(3-5):566-596.

Hajyzadeh, M., H. Asil, M.U. Yildirim, E.O. Sarihan, F. Ayanoglu and K.M.

Khawar. 2017. Evaluating effects of corm circumference and storage

temperatures on yield and yield components of saffron at different

elevations. Acta Hortic. 1184:39-46.

Hartung, W., A. Sauter and E. Hose. 2002. Abscisic acid in the xylem: where does it come from, where does it go to? J. Exp. Bot. 53(366):27-32.

Kafi, M., A. Hemmati Kakhki and A. Karbasi. 2006. Historical background,

economy, acreage, production, yield and uses. pp: 1-11. In: Kafi, M., A. Koocheki, M.H. Rashed and M. Nassiri (Eds.). Saffron (Crocus sativus) production and processing. Science Publishers, Enfield.

Karaoglu, C., S. Cocu, A. Ipek, I. Parmaksiz, E.O. Sarihan, S. Uranbey, N.

Arslan, M.D. Kaya, C. Sancak, S. Ozcan, B. Gurbuz, S. Mirici, C. Er

and K.M. Khawar. 2007. In vitro micropropagation of saffron. Acta

Hortic. 739:223-228.

Kaushal, S.K. and R.G. Upadhyay. 2002. Studies on variation in corm size and its effect on cormel production and flowering in Crocus sativus L. under midd hill conditions of H.P. Research on Crops 3(1):126-128.

Khan, M.A., S. Naseer, S. Nagoo and F.A. Nehvi. 2011. Behaviour of Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) corms for daughter corm production. J. Phytol. 3(7):47-49.

Kiran, D., S. Madhu, S. Markandey and S.A. Paramvir. 2011. In vitro cormlet production and growth evaluation under greenhouse conditions

in saffron (Crocus sativus L.) a commercially important crop. Life

Sci. 11(1):1-6.

Lane, W.D. 1978. Regeneration of apple plants from shoot meristem tips.

Plant Sci. Lett. 13:281-285.

Majourhay, K., J.A. Fernandez, P. Martínez-Gómez and A. Piqueras. 2007.

Enhanced plantlet regeneration from cultured meristems in sprouting buds of saffron corms. Acta Hort. 739:275-278.

Menia, M., S. Iqbal, R. Zahida, S. Tahir, R.H. Kanth, A.A. Saad and A. Hussian. 2018. Production technology of saffron for enhancing productivity. J. Pharmacognos. Phytochem. 7(1):1033-1039.

Mir, G.H., V.M. Kumar, S. Ahmad and L.S. Devi. 2010. Etiology and management of saffron corm rot disease in Kashmir. Proceeding of National Seminar on Technological Innovtions in Saffron. November 25-26. 1-16.

Moradi, M.M. and S. Turhan. 2017. The importance of Saffron plant in

Afghanistan’s agricultura. J. Biol. Environ. Sci. 11(33):165-169.

Mzabri I., M. Legsayer, M. Chetouani, A. Aamar, N. Kouddane, A. Boukroute, I. Bekkouch and I. Berrichi. 2017. Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) yield parameter assessment of abiotic stressed corms stored in low

temperature. J. Mater. Environ. Sci. 8(10):3588-3597.

Muller, D. and O. Leyser. 2011. Auxin, cytokinin and the control of shoot

branching. Ann. Bot. 107(7):1203-1212.

Negbi, M. 1999. Saffron cultivation: past, present and future prospects. p. 19-30. In: Negbi, M. (Ed.). Saffron Crocus sativus L. Harwood Academic Publ., Amsterdam.

Ozel, C.A. and K.M. Khawar. 2007. İn vitro bulblet regeneration of Ornithogalum oligophyllum Clarke E.D. using twin scale bulb explants. Propag. Ornam. Plants 7(2):82-88.

Ozel, C.A., K.M. Khawar, S. Karaman, M.A. Ates and O. Arslan. 2008. Efficient in vitro myultiplication in Ornithogalum ulophyllum Hand Mazz from twin scales. Sci. Hort. 116(1):109-112.

Parmaksiz, I. and K.M. Khawar. 2006. Plant regeneration by somatic

embryogenesis from immature seeds of Sternbergia candida Mathew Et

T. Baytop, an endangenred endemic plant of Turkey. Propag. Ornam.

Plants 6(3):128-133.

Parray, J.A., A.N. Kamili and R. Hamid. 2010. Application of biotechnological tools for Saffron propagation. Proceeding of National Seminar on Technological Innovations in Saffron. November 25-26. 2-4:18.

Raja, W., G. Zaffer and S.A. Wani. 2007. İn vitro mıcrocorm formatıon ın Saffron (Crocus satıvus L.). Acta Hort. 739:291-296.

Rubio-Moraga, A., O. Ahrazem, R.M. Pérez-Clemente, A. Gómez-Cadenas, K. Yoneyama, J.A. López-Ráez, R.V. Molina and L. Gómez-Gómez. 2014. Apical dominance in Saffron and the involvement of the branching

enzymes CCD7 and CCD8 in the control of bud sprouting. BMC Plant Biol. 14:171.

Sakakibara, H., K. Takei and N. Hirose. 2006. Interactions between nitrogen and cytokinin in the regulation of metabolism and development. Trends Plant Sci. 11(9):440-448.

Salwee, Y., F.A. Nehvi and S. Jyoti, 2011a. Tissue culture a tool for corm

production in Saffron national conference on recent trends in biosciences. 3-4th Oct 2011 organized by Department of Biotechnology and

Biotechnology, Sri Pratap College. Srinagar. 100 p.

Salwee, Y., F.A. Nehvi, S.S. Jyoti and A. Wani. 2011b. Shoot initiation

in Saffron in response to growth regulators under in vitro conditions

abstracts and souvenir. 1th J&K Agricultural Science Congress.

Sevimay, C.S., K.M. Khawar, I. Parmaksiz, S. Cocu, C. Sancak, E.O. Sarihan and S. Ozcan. 2005. Prolific in vitro bulblet formation from bulb scales of Meadow Lily (Lilium candidum L.). Period. Biol. 107(1):107-111.

Sharma, K.D., R. Rathour, R. Sharma and S. Goel. 2008. In vitro cormlet

development in Crocus sativus. Biol. Plant 52:709-712.

Shimizu-Sato, S.S. and H.Mori. 2001. Control of outgrowth and dormancy

in axillary buds. Plant Physiol. 127(4):1405-1413.

Shokati, B., M.R. Asgharipour, A. Ghanbari and B. Feizizadeh. 2016. Suitability assessment of Saffron cultivation using GIS based multi-criteria decision analysis approach; study area: East Azerbaijan province.

Desert 21(2):115-131.

Snedecor, G.W. and W.G. Cochran. 1989. Statistical methods. Iowa State

University Press, Ames, Iowa, USA, 8th Edition.

Tammaro, F. 1999. Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) in Italy. Negbi M. (Ed.). Saffron. Crocus sativus L. Harwood Academic Publishers. Australia.

Vurdu, H. 2004. Agronomical and biotechnological approaches for

saffron improvement. proceedings of the first on saffron biology and

biotechnology symposium. Acta Hort. 650:285-290.

Wickson, M. and K.V. Thimann. 1958. The antagonism of auxin and kinetin in apical dominance. Physiol. Plant. 11:62-74.

Yildirim, E. 2007. Development of in vitro micropropagation techniques

for Saffron (Crocus satıvus L.). Master of Science in Department

of Biology, Middle East Technical University. Available in:

https://www.researchgate.net/profil e/Arvind_Singh56/post/Saffron_


AS:391675584237575@1470394144697/download/2.pdf. Date of

consultation: October 2017.

Yildirim, M.U., H. Asil, M. Hajyzadeh, E.O. Sarihan and K. M. Khawar. 2017. Effect of changes in planting depths of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) corms and determining their agronomic characteristics under warm and

temperate (Csa) climatic conditions of Turkish province of Hatay. Acta

Hortic. 1184:47-54.

Zeybek, E., S. Önde and Z. Kaya. 2012. Improved in vitro micropropagation methods with adventitious corms and roots for endangered saffron. Central Eur. J. Biol. 7:138-145.

Universidad del Zulia /Venezuela/Revista de facultad de agronomía/ reagronomia@gmail.com /ISSN: 0378-7818


Licencia de Creative Commons
Este obra está bajo una licencia de Creative Commons Reconocimiento-NoComercial-CompartirIgual 3.0 Unported.